This prospective observational study of 499 patients with hip resurfacing and 255 patients with total hip arthroplasty compared outcomes for 2 years. We used propensity scores to identify matched cohorts of 118 patients with hip resurfacing and 118 patients with total hip arthroplasty. We used these cohorts to compare improvements in the Western Ontario and McMaster University (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index and Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36 physical function component (SF-36 PF) scores at 3 months and at 1 and 2 years postsurgery. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements from baseline in WOMAC and SF-36 PF. Improvements in SF-36 PF were greater for patients with hip resurfacing than for patients with total hip arthroplasty 1 and 2 years postsurgery; improvements in WOMAC were similar for both groups. The clinical significance of this observation needs further investigation.